International Law

Legalization of documents in Singapore

A reminder: an apostille is a stamp that confirms the legality of documents issued in a member state of the 1961 Hague Convention, allowing the use of such documents abroad. With the use of an apostille, the complicated procedure of document legalization can be avoided. However, an apostille can only be used in countries that [...]

Who is a Person with Significant Control?

Defining PSC PSC (Person with Significant Control) refers to an individual or individuals with the primary control rights within an organization. In the second quarter of 2016, the UK Companies Register mandated all British companies to disclose individuals who own or exercise control over companies. This disclosure can be made either at the time of [...]

Worldwide taxation vs territorial taxation

Territorial and worldwide taxation principles Understanding how and where worldwide and territorial taxation principles apply allows business owners to select the most advantageous jurisdiction for their specific goals. When choosing a country for international business, taxation becomes a key consideration. Both of these principles involve the concept of a "resident company." So before delving [...]

Document attestation in Dubai

Document legalization in Dubai Any person willing to obtain residency, work or start a business in Dubai must legalize their documents. Document legalization, in simple terms, is the process of giving documents issued in the UAE legal validity beyond the country's borders. In many countries, the procedure of document legalization is replaced by a [...]

Dubai free zones

What are the Dubai free zones? Free zones in Dubai are specific geographical areas where you can register a company and conduct business, benefiting from special tax incentives and business regulations. Dubai boasts around 50 free zones, each offering unique advantages and services tailored to various industries. One of the main specificities of Dubai [...]

Russian depositary receipts: conversion complexities

New federal law This is partly due to a new federal law, that prohibits Russian issuers from selling their shares abroad through depositary receipts. It also requires issuers to take delisting measures if they don't receive approval to maintain their depositary receipt programs. For many years, shares of some major Russian issuers were traded on [...]

Depositary receipts: what they are, types, and differences from stocks

What are depositary receipts? A depositary receipt is a financial instrument that represents ownership rights to the stocks of a foreign company. In other words, it is a certificate that allows investors to buy stocks of foreign companies without the need to directly invest in these companies' stocks. Instead, depositary receipts are issued by [...]

Ukrainian VAT on electronic services

What are the new VAT rules about? Simply put, foreign companies supplying electronic services to individuals / private entrepreneurs in Ukraine in the amount exceeding USD 37,000 (as at Dec 2021) within a calendar year should comply with new tax requirements in Ukraine. How Ukraine defines "electronic services"? Electronic services are the services supplied (1) [...]

VAT for Amazon sellers: who needs it

VAT for Amazon If the seller is a resident to one of the EU countries and is already registered for VAT in his country of residence, then he has no obligation to immediately register for VAT in the countries of his customers. Residents need to take into account the thresholds upon reaching which they [...]

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